What is Emotional Maltreatment?

Information retrieved from American Society for the Positive Care of Children (SPCC). (2017). Child Abuse Statistics in the U.S. Retrieved on December 21, 2017 from https://americanspcc.org/emotional-child-abuse/

Just as physical injuries can scar and incapacitate a child, emotional maltreatment can cripple and handicap a child emotionally, behaviorally and intellectually. Self-esteem can be damaged. Sever psychological disorders have been traced to excessively distorted parental attitudes and actions. One of the hallmarks of emotional abuse is the absence of positive interaction (e.g., praising) from parent to their child. Emotional and behavioral problems may be present, in varying degrees, following chronic and severe emotional child abuse, especially when there is little or no nurturing.

This is especially true for neonates, infants and toddlers. These children may become chronically withdrawn and anxious and lose basic social and language skills necessary for intimate relationships. They may become developmentally delayed, socially limited, and, in some cases, antisocial or chronically unable to protect themselves from others.

Verbal assault (belittling, screaming, threats, blaming, sarcasm), unpredictable responses, continual negative moods, constant family discord, and chronically communicating conflicting messages are examples of ways parents may subject their children to emotional abuse.

Emotional abuse and neglect are also components of other abuse and neglect. Sexual abuse and physical abuse may be the official category for a report but emotional damage also exists. Emotional abuse/neglect may damage children of all ages but may be critical with infants and toddlers leaving them with permanent developmental deficits.

Child Behavioral Indicators

Emotional abuse may be suspected if the child:

  • is withdrawn, depressed and apathetic.
  • is clingy and forms indiscriminate attachments.
  • “acts out” and is considered a behavior problem (e.g., bullies others, chronically uses profanity).
  • exhibits exaggerated fearfulness.
  • is overly rigid in conforming to instructions of teachers, doctors, and other adults.
  • suffers from sleep, speech, or eating disorders.
  • displays other signs of emotional turmoil (repetitive, rhythmic movements; rocking, whining, picking at scabs). Child Abuse Prevention Handbook
  • suffers from enuresis (bed wetting) and fecal soiling.
  • pays inordinate attention to details, or exhibits little to no verbal of physical communication with others.
  • unwittingly makes comments such as, “Mommy/Daddy always tells me I’m bad.”

Behavioral Indicators for Parents/Caretakers

A child may become emotionally distressed when:

  • Parents or caretakers place demands on the child that are based on unreasonable or impossible expectations or without consideration of the child’s developmental capacity.
  • The child is used as a “battle ground” for marital conflicts.
  • The child is used to satisfy the parent’s/caregiver’s own ego needs and the child is neither old enough nor mature enough to understand.
  • The child victim is “objectified” bu the perpetrator, the child is referred to as “it” (“it” cried, “it” died).
  • The child is a witness to domestic violence.

Emotional abuse can be seen as proving a self-fulfulling prophecy. If a child is degraded enough, the child will begin to live up to the image communicated by the abusing parent or caretaker.

Emotional abuse cases can be extremely difficult to prove, and cumulative documentation by witnesses is imperative. Such Cases should be referred to treatment as soon as possible.

Suspected cases of emotional abuse that constitute willful cruelty or unjustifiable punishment of a child are required to be reported by mandated reporters. This means a report must be made of any situation where any person willfully causes or permits any child to suffer, or inflicts on any child, unjustifiable mental suffering (Pen. Code, Section 11165.3). However, mandated reporters may also report any degree of mental suffering. While these cases may not always be prosecuted, reporting provides the opportunity for intervention and/or therapy with the family.

Emotional Deprivation

Emotional deprivation has been defined as “…the deprivation suffered by children when their parents do not provide the normal experiences producing feelings or being loved, wanted, secure, and worthy.”

Caretakers might also provide cause for evaluation and possible reporting of a neonate at risk. Withholding affection with touch, smiles and sound may be more damaging than verbal and even physical assault. Children may provoke assault if necessary to gain negative interaction rather than suffer the pain of being ignored. This may damage children of all ages but is critical for infants and young toddlers. Intervention may include consideration of caretaker depression, substance abuse, parenting deficits, and lack of social or financial support for the caretaker. Consideration should be made for evaluation of the caretaker for these issues as well as possible domestic violence.

Behavioral Indicators of Emotional Deprivation

Emotional deprivation may be suspected if the child:

  • Refuses to eat adequate amounts of food and is therefore very frail.
  • Is unable to perform normal learned functions for a given age (walking, talking); exhibits developmental delays, particularly with verbal and nonverbal social skills.
  • Displays antisocial behavior (aggression, behavioral disruption, bullying others) or obvious “delinquent” behavior (drug abuse, vandalism); conversely, is abnormally unresponsive, sad, or withdrawn.
  • Constantly “seeks out” and “pesters” other adults, such as teachers or neighbors, for attention and affection.
  • Displays exaggerated fears.
  • Apathy, withdrawal and lack of response to human interaction.

When parents ignore their children, whether because of drug or alcohol use, psychiatric disturbances, personal problems, outside activities, or other preoccupying situations, serious consequences can occur. However, reporting these situations is not mandated unless they constitute a form of legally defined abuse or neglect. Emotional neglect may be seen as a lesser form of child abuse/neglect. It may bot be reportable or may be assessed out with no intervention. It is, however, a central issue for much of what damages children.

These children may return with more severe damage and are therefore worthy of voluntary intervention and follow-up.

What is Physical Abuse?

Information retrieved from American Society for the Positive Care of Children (SPCC). (2017). Child Abuse Statistics in the U.S. Retrieved on December 21, 2017 from https://americanspcc.org/physical-child-abuse/

Physical abuse if any non-accidental act that results in physical injury. Inflicted physical injury most often represents unreasonably severe corporal punishment or unjustifiable punishment, This usually happens when a person is frustrated or angry and strikes, shakes, or throws the child. Intentional, deliberate assault, such as burning, biting, cutting, poking, twisting limbs, or otherwise torturing a child, is also included in this category of child abuse.

Indicators of Physical Abuse

These indicators are used to help distinguish accidental injuries from cases of suspected physical abuse:

  • Location & Types of Injuries- Padded areas as the buttocks, back of legs, genitalia and cheeks are more concerning in that it takes more force to cause bruising. Bruises happen when the blood vessels break under the skin. Thus children who are old enough to walk often fall and have bruises over boney surfaces such as the forehead, knees, shins where blood vessels are breaking between two hard surfaces (the floor for example, and underlying bone). However, simple falls and even disciplinary spanking with an open palm should not be forceful enough to cause bruising to the buttocks. Protected areas such as ears, neck, and upper lip are more concerning because it is difficult to accidentally bump or fall on these areas. Patterned injuries such as loop marks, slap marks, or grab marks are highly suspicious and in some cases indicative of inflicted trauma.

History

This history includes all facts about the child and the injury, including:

  • Statements by the child that the injury was caused by abuse.
  • Knowledge that a child’s injury is unusual for a specific age group (any fracture in an infant).
  • Unexplained injuries (parent, caretaker, or child is unable to explain reason for injury; there are discrepancies in explanation; blame is placed on a third party; explanations are inconsistent with medical diagnosis).
  • Parent or caretaker delays seeking care for a child or fails to seek appropriate care.

Behavioral Indicators

Children may exhibit new or concerning behaviors for a number of reasons including child abuse as well as other sources of childhood stress such as parental divorce, death in the family, etc. If a child exhibits drastic behavioral changes, is excessively aggressive, violent or destructive, is cruel to animals, or becomes visibly depressed or suicidal, a serious mental health evaluation should be done. In addiction, it may be an indication that the child has been abused. If abuse is suspected, the mandated reporter must inform Child Protective Services or law enforcement about their concerns.

Types of Injuries

Damage to Skin & Surface Tissue:

  • Bruises
  • Abrasions, Lacerations
  • Bite Marks
  • Burns

Damage to Brain

  • Head Injuries
  • Abusive Head Trauma

Damage to Other Internal Organs

  • Internal Injuries

Damage to Skeleton

  • Fractures

What is Child Abuse?

Information retrieved from American Society for the Positive Care of Children (SPCC). (2017). Child Abuse Statistics in the U.S. Retrieved on December 21, 2017 from https://americanspcc.org/child-abuse/

Child abuse takes many forms, physical, emotional, verbal, sexual, neglect, exploitation, and more. When we speak of child abuse, we normally first think of physical abuse, spankings, and whoopings, but the shocking truth is that neglect is the number one form of child abuse in America. More children die from neglect every year, than any other form of childhood maltreatment.

General Definition of Child Abuse:

Any act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker, which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse, or exploitation of a child, or an act or failure to act presenting an imminent risk of serious harm to a child.

Types of Child Abuse:

  • Physical Abuse: Physical hitting, unlawful corporal punishment or injury.
  • Neglect: General and severe, lack of basic needs, malnutrition.
  • Emotional Abuse: Causing psychological or emotional instability.
  • Verbal Abuse: Yelling, screaming, belittling, bullying, cursing.
  • Sexual Abuse: Sexual assault, pornography, exploitation.
  • Child Safety: Willfully harming or endangering a child, hot cars.
  • Shaken Baby Syndrome: Shaking causes death or permanent brain damage.
  • Domestic Violence: Dysfunctional or violent home or family.
  • Substance Abuse: Parent or caregiver’s personal drug & alcohol abuse.
  • Abandonment: Parent’s identity or whereabouts unknown, no support.

Abuse Definitions:

  • Physical Abuse- Any intentional, non-accidental physical injury to a child, including: striking, kicking, burning, biting, cutting, poking, twisting limbs, shaking, throwing, or torturing a child.
  • Neglect- General neglect is the failure of a parent or caregiver to provide needed food, clothing, shelter, medical care, education, nurturing, or supervision whereby a child’s health, safety, and well-being are threatened with harm. Severe neglect results from negligent failure to protect the child from severe malnutrition or medically diagnosed non-organic failure to thrive.
  • Emotional Abuse- The failure of a parent or caregiver to provide adequate nurturing or positive interaction to a child, causing injury to the psychological capacity or emotional stability of the child, observable as a substantial change in behavior, emotional response, cognition, anxiety, depression, withdrawal, or aggressive behavior.
  • Verbal Abuse- Verbal abuse includes, belittling, screaming, threats, blaming, sarcasm, bullying, harsh and insulting language, unpredictable responses, continual negative moods, constant family discord, and chronically communicating conflicting messages to children.
  • Sexual Abuse- Any violation, exploitation, or sexual activity with a child to provide sexual gratification or financial benefit to the perpetrator. This includes contact for sexual purposes, molestation, statutory rape, prostitution, pornography, exposure, incest, or other sexually exploitative activities.
  • Child Safety- Child safety is a subset of child neglect, and includes leaving young children and babies unsupervised, or leaving children in locked cars with the window up. Hot cars can be lethal to young children. Young children should never be left unsupervised anywhere for any length of time.
  • Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS)- It is a severe form of physical child abuse resulting from violent shaking of an infant or young child by the shoulders, arms, or legs. SBS may result from both shaking alone or from shaking with impact, often resulting in permanent irreversible brain damage or death. Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) is preventable. NEVER shake a baby!
  • Domestic Violence- Children exposed to violence in the home or among family members, undergo lasting physical, mental and emotional harm. They suffer from difficulties with attachment, regressive behavior, anxiety and depression, and aggression and conduct problems.
  • Substance Abuse- Use of alcohol, illegal drugs, and controlled substances by a parent or controlled impairs their ability to adequately care for a child. Use of these substances during pregnancy cause prenatal harm to the fetus. Babies are born addicted to the same drugs as the mother has taken throughout the pregnancy. Exposing a child to the chemicals, equipment, or manufacture of illicit drugs, and selling, distributing, or giving drugs or alcohol to a minor child.
  • Abandonment- Is defined as the parent’s identity or whereabouts are unknown, the child has been left by the parent in circumstances in which the child suffers serious harm, or the parent has failed to maintain contact with the child or to provide reasonable support for a specified period of time.

In conclusion, it is worth noting that definitions of child abuse and neglect vary by state, which is one of the problems in under-reporting and preventing child maltreatment. The Center for Disease Control has proposed more uniform definitions. It is also worth noting that child abuse in any form is a civil and criminal offense. Therefore, to protect children and parents, American SPCC recommends parents and caregivers seek information and education promoting the positive care of children and positive parenting skills.

Child Abuse Statistics in the U.S.

Information retrieved from American Society for the Positive Care of Children (SPCC). (2017). Child Abuse Statistics in the U.S. Retrieved on December 21, 2017 from https://americanspcc.org/child-abuse-statistics/

Child Abuse in America

American children are suffering from a hidden  epidemic of child abuse and neglect. National child abuse estimates are well known for being under-reported. The latest 2015 Child Maltreatment Report from The Children’s Bureau was published in January 2017. The report shows an increase in child abuse referrals from 3.6 million to 4 million. The number of children involved subsequently increased to 7.2 million from 6.6 million. The report also indicates an increase in child deaths from abuse and neglect to 1,670 in 2015, up from 1,580 in 2014 (1). Some reports estimate child abuse fatalities at 1,740 or even higher.

The United States has one of the worst records among industrialized nations – losing an average almost five (5) children every day to child abuse and neglect.

National Child Abuse Statistics

  • 4 million child maltreatment referral reports received.
  • Child abuse reports involved 7.2 million children.
  • 3.4 million children received prevention & post-response services.
  • 207,000 children received foster care services.
  • 75.3% of victims are neglected.
  • 17.2% of victims are physically abused.
  • 8.4% of victims are sexually abused.
  • 6.9% of victims are psychologically maltreated.
  • Highest rate of child abuse in children under one (24.2% per 1,000).
  • Over one-quarter (27%) of victims are younger than 3 years.
  • Annual estimate: 1,670 to 1,740 children died from abuse and neglect.
  • Almost five children die every day from child abuse.
  • 80% of child fatalities involve at least one parent.
  • 74.8% of child fatalities are under the age of 3.
  • 72.9% of the child abuse victims die from neglect.
  • 43.9% of the child abuse victims die from physical abuse.
  • 49.4% of  children who die from child abuse are under one year.
  • Almost 60,000 children are sexually abused.
  • More than 90% of juvenile sexual abuse victims know their perpetrator.
  • Estimated that between 50-60% of maltreatment fatalities are not recorded on death certificates.
  • Child abuse crosses all socioeconomic and educational levels, religions, ethnic and cultural groups.

Child Abuse & Criminal Behavior

  • 14% of all men in prison and 36% of women in prison in the USA were abused as children, about twice the frequency seen in the general population.
  • Children who experience child abuse & neglect are about 9 times more likely to become involved in criminal activity.

Child Abuse Consequences

  • Abused children are 25% more likely to experience teen pregnancy.
  • Abused teens are more likely to engage in sexual risk taking, putting them at greater risk for STDs.
  • About 30% of abused and neglected children will later abuse their own children, continuing the horrible cycle of abuse.
  • In at least one study, about 80% of 21-year-olds that were abused as children met criteria for at least one psychological disorder.
  • The financial cost of child abuse and neglect in the United States is estimated at $585 billion.

Child Abuse Risk Factors

  • Alcohol abuse (parent/caregiver) – the compulsive use of alcohol that is not of a temporary nature.
  • Drug abuse (parent/caregiver) – the compulsive use of drugs that is not of a temporary nature.
  • Domestic violence (parent/caregiver) – abusive, violent, coercive, forceful, or threatening act or word inflicted by one member of a family or household on another.

Child Abuse & Alcohol/Substance Abuse

  • 1/3 to 2/3 of child maltreatment cases involve substance use to some degree.
  • In one study, children whose parents abuse alcohol and other drugs were three times more likely to be abused and more than four times more likely to be neglected than children from non-abusing families.
  • Two-thirds of the people in treatment for drug abuse report being abused or neglected as children.
  • More than a third of adolescents with a report of abuse or neglect will have a substance use disorder before their 18th birthday, three times as likely as those without a report of abuse or neglect.
  • 10.3% – 15.8% of children have a parent/caregiver alcohol abuse risk factor.
  • 25.4% – 33.2% of children have a parent/caregiver drug abuse risk factor.
  • 25% – 33.2% of children have a domestic violence abuse risk factor.

National Statistics on Child Abuse

Information was retrieved from National Children’s Alliance (NCA). (2014). National Statistics on Child Abuse. Retrieved December 21, 2017 from http://www.nationalchildrensalliance.org/media-room/media-kit/national-statistics-child-abuse

National Statistics on Child Abuse (1)

In 2015, an estimated 1,670 children died from abuse and neglect in the United States (1). In 2015, Children’s Advocacy Centers around the country served more than 311,000 (2) child victims of abuse, providing victim advocacy and support to these children and their families.

Nearly 700,000 children are abused in the U.S. annually. An estimated 683,000 children (unique incidents) were victims of abuse and neglect in 2015, the most recent year for which there is national data.

CPS protects more than 3 million children. Approximately 3.4 million children received an investigation or alternative response from child protective services agencies. 2.3 million children received prevention services.

The youngest children were most vulnerable to maltreatment. Children in the first year of their life had the highest rate of victimization of 24.2 per 1,000 children in the national population of the same age.

Neglect is the most common form of maltreatment. Of children who experienced maltreatment or abuse, three-quarters suffered neglect;  17.2% suffered physical abuse, and 8.4% suffered sexual abuse. (Some children are polyvictimed – they have suffered more than one form of maltreatment.)

About four out of five abusers are the victims’ parents. A parent of the child victim was the perpetrator in 78.1% of substantiated cases of child maltreatment.

How Children’s Advocacy Centers Served Children: Statistics (2)

Children’s Advocacy Centers served more than 311,000 children around the country in 2015. Here’s a snapshot of these children:

  • Ages 0 to 6 – 37%
  • Ages 7 to 12 – 37%
  • Ages 13 to 17 – 26%

Two-third of children served disclosed sexual abuse (205,438).

Nearly 20% of children served disclosed physical abuse (60,897).

211,831 children received on-site forensic interviewing at a Children’s Advocacy Center.

People Investigated for Abuse

People Investigated by Age

  • Under 13 – 10%
  • Ages 13 to 17 – 13%
  • Ages 18+ – 77%

Relationship to Victim

  • Known, Not Family – 10%
  • Relative of Child – 51%
  • Parent – 39%

Of those alleged to have abused children, nearly a quarter were themselves children.

Almost 40% were a parent or caregiver of the child victim.

Fully 90% of alleged abusers were related in some to the child victim.

References

  1. All national child abuse statistics cited from U.S. Administration for Children & Families, Child Maltreatment 2015. https://www.acf.hhs.gov/cb/resources/child-maltreatment-2015
  2. National CHildren’s Advocacy 2015 national statistics collected from Children’s Advocacy Center members and available on the NCA website: http://www.nationalchildrensalliance.org/cac-statistics

Child Abuse Statistics & Facts

Information was retrieved from ChildHelp. (2017). Child Abuse Statistics & Facts. Retrieved December 21, 2017 from https://www.childhelp.org/cihld-abuse-statistics/

Scope of the Child Abuse Issue

Children are suffering from a hidden epidemic of child abuse and neglect. It’s a widespread war against our children that we have the power to stop, and understanding the issue is the first step. Just how bad is the issue of child abuse in the United States?

Every year more than 3.6 million referrals are made to child protection agencies involving more than 6.6 million children (a referral can include multiple children).

The United States has one of the worst records among industrialized nations – losing an average between four and seven children ever day to child abuse and neglect (1,2).

A report of child abuse is made every ten seconds.

Yearly, referrals to state child protective services involve 6.6 million children, and around 3.2 million of those children are subject to an investigated report (2).

In 2014, state agencies found an estimated 702,000 victims of child maltreatment (2), but that only tells part of the story. This would pack 10 modern football stadiums.

Health Impacts of Child Abuse

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention links adverse childhood experiences (which include other household dysfunctions along with abuse and neglect) with a range of long-term health impacts (4).

Individuals who reported six or more adverse childhood experiences had an average life expectancy two decades shorter than those who reported none (5).

Ischemic heart disease (IHD), Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), liver disease and other health-related quality of life issues are tied to child abuse.

Mental Health Disorders, Addictions, & Related Issues

  • Risk for intimate partner violence
  • Alcoholism and alcohol abuse
  • Illicit drug abuse
  • Smoking & drinking at an early age
  • Depression
  • Suicide attempts

Sexual & Reproductive Health Issues and Risk Factors

  • Multiple sexual partners
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Unintended pregnancies
  • Early initiation of sexual activity
  • Adolescent pregnancy and Fetal death

In one study, 80% of 21-year-olds who reported childhood abuse met the criteria for at least one psychological disorder (6).

Financial Impacts of Child Abuse

The long-term financial impact of abuse and neglect is staggering. For new cases in 2008 alone, lifetime estimates of lost worker productivity, health care costs, special education costs, child welfare expenditures and criminal justice expenditures added up to $124 billion (8). This could send 1.7 million children to college.

Child Abuse Fatalities

We must learn to recognize early signs of abuse in order to help save the 5 children that die every day from child abuse and neglect. In 2014, state agencies identified an estimated 1,580 children who died as a result of abuse and neglect – between four and five children a day (2). However, studies indicate significant undercounting of child maltreatment fatalities by state agencies – by 50% or more (10). That’s roughly 1/4 of your child’s elementary school class.

More than 70% of the children who died as a result of child abuse or neglect were two years of age or younger. More than 80% were not yet old enough for kindergarten (3). Around 80% of child maltreatment fatalities involve at least one parent as perpetrator (3).

Behavioral Health and Crime Related to Child Abuse

Substance Abuse and child maltreatment are tragically and undeniably linked. In a study of 513 children exposed to drugs in-utero, rates of abuse were two to three times that of other children in the same geographical area (9). As many as two-thirds of the people in treatment for drug abuse reported being abused or neglected as children (11). 14% of all men in prison and 26% of women in prison in the USA were abused as children, about twice the frequency seen in the general population (12). Children who experience child abuse & neglect are about 9 times more likely to become involved in criminal activity (12).

Resources (view on original website)

Happy Birthday Daddy

Today is a hard day for me as it is my daddy’s birthday. He passed away the day before Father’s Day 2000. Even though it’s been 17 years, it’s still very hard on me. He was a great man who loved life and loved to make others laugh. I still remember his many jokes to this day and they still make me smile and laugh, especially when I get to retell them to others. It’s like a big part of him still lives on through me and my memories.

His birthday is hard because of what I wish I could change. He was my stepgrandfather who decided along with my grandmother to adopt me after my child abuse. They gained custody of me when I was almost 12 years old and the adoption did not go through until I was 17. That did not make me love them any less though. The first few years with them were the hardest and not just for me but for them as well because I put them through hell. My mom was a stay-at-home mom and he was an over-the-road truck driver. I was a very emotionally disturbed child due to the child abuse I had experienced and I told them often that I hated them. It wasn’t until I turned 13 when they told me of their adoption plans. It changed everything for me because I realized they loved me no matter what. The sad thing is that even though I knew they loved me and wouldn’t hurt me, it still took another year before I could hug my dad. I look back after his death and realize it was wasted time, time that could have been spent closer together.

Before he passed away, he had a heart catheterization and was told he wouldn’t live much longer, probably only weeks. He informed the doctors that his daughter was graduating from high school in 2 months and he was going to be there. He made it to my graduation and I knew he was proud of me. He told me that night that he knew his purpose in life was to take me in when no one else wanted me and let me become the amazing young lady I had turned out to be. Two weeks later he was gone.

He always said that he either wanted to go in his sleep or doing something he loved and God granted his wish. He loved Model Ts and owned one. He had just received his one and only trophy for his Model T the weekend prior and was driving it to another car show when he had his heart attack. I believe God granted his wish because he fulfilled his life purpose. Had it not been for him, I would probably still hate men to this day. He let me see that not all men are bad and some can be trusted. Losing my daddy was the hardest thing I had to go through but it was even harder that I had not spent more time with him in those years I was scared of men. I know he understood and he never pushed me, but I still wish things had been different.

Happy birthday daddy and I love you! Thank you for changing my life!

Why a Blog?

Blogs have become a way to get information out to others, a way to share what one has learned or experienced. I am viewing this blog as both. I want to learn about others and learn new things that could help and inspire myself and others and share that information. My experiences in life have caused me to be very knowledgeable in many areas, but my experiences and lessons learned are different from others who may have experienced the same obstacles in life. I know that everyone deals with experiences in different ways and that they affect each individual differently. This blog is not here to belittle or degrade anyone’s experience(s). This blog is also not here for pity because trust me, pity is the last thing I would ever want. My experiences have made me the amazing woman that I am today. Do I wish that I had not went through some of my experiences? Do I think and dream about how my life would have been different without some of the experiences? You bet, but I have learned to accept them as a part of myself. I have learned to live with the experiences and to love myself regardless of the experiences. I have learned life lessons, lessons that have helped me with my love and passion for psychology and helping others.

I hope others will be able to learn and grow with the information presented on this blog. I definitely don’t mind feedback from followers, so please feel free to post comments in response to anything posted here. Please remember to be courteous in comments and responses, not only for me but for others.